The company I work at recently experienced this problem as well, coincidental with the daylight savings time change (interestingly enough, in Germany). However, the users who experienced problems were all BlackBerry users. iOS/Android users were apparently unaffected (or never reported a problem). I don't know if we have any WP users in EMEA...
The symptom was that e-mail messages would be pushed to the BlackBerry about an hour late. If I recall correctly, we restarted our BlackBerry management servers to solve the problem.
For the record, it is fairly well known that computing devices will not talk to each other politely if their clocks are off by more than 5 or 10 minutes. Since we experienced only users connected to our Germany Exchange and BlackBerry servers experienced any problems, and since you experienced a similar issue at the same time, it's possible that the clocks on some of Germany's internet backbone routers didn't update to daylight savings time correctly. One well-placed router with an out of date firmware could toss the whole country into disarray come Daylight Savings Time.
In the case of WP connecting directly with Exchange ActiveSync, you might talk to your IT department just to find out if anyone else had issues as well. If other users are still experiencing this problem, then they can investigate it (and it might be as "simple" as bouncing the Exchange servers). If you're the only one with the problem, then you did the right thing by removing and re-adding the account.
I forgot to add that I, as WP8 user and a systems administrator, am not aware of any known issues with Exchange ActiveSync and WP getting confused over daylight savings time. None of our WP users in North America experienced any problems with the time change this fall.