Various tips in this thread on WPCentral eventually got me set.
I'm not sure if all of these steps are required or not, but they were for me:
- Turn off find my phone
- Force a backup to the cloud in settings > backup > app list+settings
- Delete all your phones on windowsphone.com. It will warn you that your phone will no longer be able to connect to your account, ever, unless you factory reset it.
- Factory reset phone. I imported my settings from the cloud and waited.
- Once it was up and running, I turned find my phone back on.
My settings look normal now (though I can't remember if the on/off switch should be there):