I'm currently using the version 184.108.40.20699. Windows Phone 8
Open the app and click in the person icon (the profile image). Right now you are in the profile page.
In the options in the bottom you must have home, compose, search and pin.
If you don't want to have it on OneDrive you will need to upload it with a Twitter app which will then use TwitPic or something else. The file needs to be somewhere (on the web) if you want to show it. The default way for Windows Phone is to send it to your OneDrive account.
The first thing I try for these types of problems is to delink all accounts and relink them 1 at a time, checking to see if the people hub works. Often times issues like this are caused by the oAuth token being revoked by the external service for whatever reason. I won't say that's your problem, but it's pretty likely.
This is obviously an app issue.
I don't know which Twitter app you're using, but I'm guessing it's the official one. The app actually refreshes the profile pics after a while but indeed it takes long for it to do so.
There no workaround that I know of. This is one of the reasons I use a third party Twitter app. If the delaying of the pics is a major ...
You could use official Twitter app along with other client apps. There are many available on store as free as well as paid services.
Some of the free twitter clients are MeTweets, Peregrine, Raven, etc.
Some o the paid twitter clients are Fenice, Tweetium, Aeries, Aristea, Twittone, Tweet it !, etc.
Acc. to some surveys, Tweetium is considered 2nd best ...
Sharing via Twitter was an option in WP8, I'm sure because I used it.
I checked on my Lumia 620 with WP8.1 with two different Apps and you are right: the share menu doesn't offer anymore Twitter sharing option. Same like you, I have my Twitter account correctly configured.
I had a look around on the web and I found this article that says:
The app works ...
What you are referring to by "share" is ShareLinkTask, Now for your queries:
Yes, sharing via ShareLinkTask is available both on Windows Phone 8 and 8.1. But Twitter changed their oAuth service on platform 8.1 and for that sharing is not possible in 8.1. Putting it simple: same share codes work in WP8, but not in 8.1.
Told you, they changed their ...
To resolve this you need to do the following:
Uninstall both WhatsApp and Twitter.
Restart your phone.
Install WhatsApp and Twitter again.
If that does not help:
Try the solution above a few more times.
If that does not work do a factory reset of your phone.
If that does not do the job either, send your phone to a repair center.
There's not much you can do unless the app developer has produced troubleshooting guides for known issues with their app.
You can go check the app reviews in the store to see if other people are having this problem, or email the developer through the contact address listed in the store.
If the app never worked for you, but others say it does work for them, ...